Singapore gay literature

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Singapore Gay Literature refers to writing that deals with LGBT themes in a Singapore context. It covers literary works of fiction, such as novels, short stories, plays and poems. It also includes non-fiction works, both scholarly and targeted at the general reader, such as dissertations, journal or magazine articles, books and even web-based content. Although Singapore lacks a dedicated gay book publisher or gay bookshop, it does have at least one dedicated gay library, Pelangi Pride Centre, which is open weekly to the public. Many of the works cited here may be found both in Pelangi Pride Centre, as well as the National Library or other academic libraries in Singapore, as well as in some commercial bookshops under 'gender studies' sections.

Contents

Plays

The increasing boldness of local authors in sympathetically addressing LGBT themes is intertwined with the growth of English-language theatre in Singapore since the mid-1980s. It was in theatre that writers first challenged the cultural taboo surrounding homosexuality. A fairly regular stream of gay plays were staged in Singapore throughout the 1990s, raising the public profile of sexual minorities.

  • Lest the Demons Get To Me (1993) by Russell Heng depicts a dilemma in which a male-to-female transsexual resents having to dress up as a man to perform funeral rites as her dead father’s only son. The play highlights a society that is rather crushing on the protagonist’s desire to be true to herself. [1] [2]
  • Private Parts (1994), a comedy by Michael Chiang, addresses the theme of Singapore society’s capacity to come to terms with gender minorities in the form of transsexuals. The Straits Times reported that "Private Parts, with its remarkable performances and poignant message, is a special production that should not close until every person in this country has seen it". The play has also been performed in Mandarin. [3]
  • Invitation to Treat Trilogy by Eleanor Wong tells the story of Ellen Toh, a law partner, coming to terms with her homosexuality. Mergers and Accusations (1995) and Wills and Secession (1996), the first two installations, tell the story of Ellen marrying a Jon, a fellow lawyer, then leaving him and falling in love with Lesley. In charting her protagonist's personal struggle to win acceptance from family and social circle, Wong pushes the 'coming out' message and moves closer to activism than seen in Heng or Chiang's more descriptive treatment of the subject. The final part, Jointly and Severably, sees Ellen struggling with forgetting Lesley and seeking courage to begin a new relationship with law professor Zee. A clever play wrought with legal puns and allusions, Invitation to Treat proves to be an insightful dramatical success.[4] [5]
  • Asian Boys Trilogy (2001–2007) features three disparate plays written by Alfian Sa'at and directed by Ivan Heng. The first installment Asian Boys Vol.1 was staged in 2001 to rave reviews, not only on its artistic merit but also its relevance to the incumbent societal concerns. Following this was Landmarks: Asian Boys Vol.2 premiered in 2004. A collection of eight short stories, this montage explores the myriad gay experiences of Singaporeans, albeit mostly clandestine. One of the stories, Katong Fugue, was later in 2006 made into a short film. Finally, the last of the trilogy Happy Endings: Asian Boys Vol.3 recently started playing at Drama Centre, National Library @ Singapore; the run lasts from 11 to 29 July 2007.

(For other plays, see Singapore gay theatre).

Novels

Novels with LGBT-related themes began emerging in Singapore literature scene in the 1990s. Among the earliest work is Different Strokes (1993) by David Leo portraying victims of AIDS. [6]

  • Peculiar Chris (1992) by Johann S. Lee (Cannon International, 1992 ISBN 9810035578), the only true "coming-out novel" written from a Singaporean point of view so far. Describes a young athlete and national serviceman's angst-filled struggles with boyfriends, discriminatory institutions and death, as well as his coming out into the gay and lesbian community. It was described by The Straits Times in 2008 as a 'cult classic'.[9]
  • Glass Cathedral[10] (1995) by Andrew Koh- Singapore’s second gay novel. It did not have as huge an impact as Peculiar Chris when it was released, but it was immensely significant for the gay literary world. It was not just critically praised, it actually won an award - a Commendation in the Singapore Literature Prize in 1994. The story is about a university student named Colin, just out of National Service, who falls passionately in love with a wealthy colleague named James. Besides the courtship, romance and sex, there is a lot of exploration of what it means to be gay and Catholic in Singapore - facing both homophobia and calls for evolution of the faith. There is even a gay priest character thrown into the mix. (ISBN 9971006707)
  • Asking for Trouble (2005) by Jason Hahn, an 8-days journalist, who based his humour book on his experiences with living with two high-maintenance women, with free advice from his 2 male friends, one gay, the other married. [11] (ISBN 9812610251)
  • The Narcissist (2004) by Edmund Wee (Times Editions, May 2004, ISBN 981232819X) [15],[16] It was the first novel by the then 31-year-old Singaporean journalist. Set in Paris and London, the novel follows the trail of a young, callow homosexual narrator who gradually discovers the darker side of men. The two themes woven throughout the novel are self-discovery and self-love.
  • To Know Where I'm Coming From (2007) by Johann S. Lee (Cannon International, 2007 ISBN 978-981-05-9472-5), Lee's indirect sequel to Peculiar Chris. About a gay emigrant returning to his homeland to heal from a broken heart. Rated 5 stars out of 6 by Time Out and 3 stars out of 5 by The Sunday Times. Alex Au wrote in his Yawning Bread review: "It's a much more mature book than the first, but the talent for telling a story with honesty and enrapturement is still very much there… One day, I think it is safe to bet, this novel will be on the required reading list for Singapore students, even if some people might turn in their grave, or more likely in the Singapore context, stew in their urn. It will be on that list precisely because it is suspended in the tension between being gay and being Singaporean, being away and being connected; precisely because it captures a moment in our shared national history."
  • Quiet Time (2008) by Johann S. Lee (Cannon International, 2008 ISBN 978-981-08-1703-9), The concluding part of Lee's Singaporean queer triptych which began with Peculiar Chris. About a gay man's paternal instincts and gay activism, set against the civil rights events of 2007. Rated 3.5 stars out of 5 by The Sunday Times. Cyril Wong wrote: “Passionate and unflinching in his portrayal of the self-contradictions and inexorable conflicts which remain part and parcel of being gay in Singapore, Johann S Lee has created a wonderfully realistic, prescient and moving book that threatens to bat his previous works (and many past Singaporean novels) off the shelf of living memory. In time, one hopes that Quiet Time will continue to instruct and encourage present and future generations of gay readers to keep questioning the value of their existence, and to look back in awe at how far we have all come as a persecuted community.” The Sunday Times: "A remarkable book." Trevvy.com: "A must-read." Fridae.com: "Singapore's best gay novel ever."
  • Blame It On The Raging Hormones (2010) by Nathan Goh (Wham Bam, 2010 ISBN 978-981-08-6405-7 / Tincture, 2011 ISBN 978-1-59021-115-1) is a coming-of-age memoir of a twenty old Singaporean gay man, written in the form of an online journal. It’s about how the character, Nicky was trying to find love, validation and sense of worth but was finding them in the wrong places and how he crashes into a world of sex, drugs, orgies, prostitution and betrayal in his pursuit.

Short stories

LGBT-themed stories are found in different collections of short stories. Examples are:

  • Corridor: 12 Short Stories (1999) by Alfian Sa'at, (Raffles Editions ISBN 981-4032-40-9) contains a several stories with GLBT themes. 'Pillow' looks at a difficult inter-generational relationship. 'Cubicle' is about the physical intimacy two lesbian students often steal in a public toilet. A flamboyant transvestite character appears in 'Bugis'. Finally, 'Disco' deals with an older man who is starting to discover the youth-dominated gay club scene. This book won the 1998 Singapore Literature Prize Commendation Award. [17]
  • Cross-straits experiences by Alfian Sa'at, simply titled Bugis in a Singapore-Malaysia collection, The Merlion and the Hibiscus.
  • Worlds Apart, written by J.C. Leahy, found in In the Shadow of the Merlion, an anthology of expatriates' experiences in Singapore
  • Students' collections like Onewinged with stories like The Transformation and Extracts from Fairy Tale by Cheryl Lim and Sim Yee Chiang respectively
  • Pte M, a short story by C.S. Chong in NS: An Air Level Story about an effeminate soldier who tries to be intimate with the protagonist who feels nothing but revulsion, despite not rejecting the unwanted advances until the last possible moment.
  • Drum, a somewhat homophobic short story by David Leo in News at Nine which is modeled after Herman Melville's Billy Budd.
  • Butch and Girl Talk, by Sabariah, a collection of short narrative pieces exclusively about the experiences of young lesbian and bisexual women (and FTM men) in Singapore. It is unclear if the stories are based on the experiences of actual women or primarily fictional. Published by VJ Times, the book is no longer widely available.
  • SQ21: Singapore Queers in the 21st Century - a groundbreaking collection of true Singaporean gay and lesbian coming-out stories, the first in Asia, by Ng Yi-Sheng. Published by Oogachaga.
  • Tong Lei (2009) by Ken Ang [18] (Oogachaga, 2009 ISBN 978-981-08-3697-9) is Singapore’s first collection of Chinese short fiction. Each story is based on a true account of from the lives of gay men in contemporary Singapore. Written by Ken Ang, the book is accompanied by two theme songs 剩下 and 放心 by composed and performed by Tin Ang. The book is published by Oogachaga (OC), the publishers of the popular Singapore Queers of the 21st Century (SQ21) in conjunction with OC’s tenth anniversary. The book was launched during IndigNation 2009 and all proceeds from the sale of the book will be channeled to OC’s support group programmes and counselling services.

Poetry

Cyril Wong came out into the scene in 2000 with poetry that was confessional in style but universal in scope. Completely "out" in newspaper and magazine interviews, he is the only openly-gay poet to win the National Arts Council's Young Artist Award for Literature. His books include:

(Read reviews of Wong's work archived on his website:[19])

Alvin Pang's "The Scent of the Real", which refers to Cyril Wong, is value-neutral and mentions Cyril Wong's sexuality as a fact, not as something disgusting or abject.

Toh Hsien Min and Yong Shu Hoong have written poems about friends coming out to them in "On a Good Friend's Admission that he is Gay" and "A Friend's Confession". Both were suspicious that their friends wanted sexual relations with them.

Gwee Li Sui in the eponymous book with the poem Who wants to buy a book of Poems refers to the stereotype of poets as limp-wristed and "ah kua" - although admittedly this is not the first time this concept has been explored. The book, which claims to have been privately circulated for 3 years before being published seems to explore a similar theme that has been previously explored in other works, including those of the poets mentioned in the above. In the following poem, "Edward", he depicts the sad life of a cross-dresser past his prime.

Ng Yi-Sheng's poetry collection, last boy, contains many lyrical poems celebrating and reflecting on gay love and sexuality.

Non-fiction

Books

  • Cries from Within (1970) by S. Shan Ratnam; Victor H. H. Goh and Tsoi Wing Foo- an illustrated and user-friendly tome on sex-reassignment surgery and its attendant psychological considerations by two eminent gynaecologists and a psychiatrist. [20]

ISBN: 981047198X (see Fridae review by Alvin Tan:[24]).

  • Excuse Me, Are You a Model? by Bonny Hicks (Flame of the Forest, 1995)- a frank autobiography of a young Eurasian model who is quite frank about her bisexual crushes transsexual. While not specifically queer-oriented, its mass popularity makes it impossible to ignore.
  • F.O.C: Freedom of Choice by Leslie Lung features 20 short stories about people struggling against their sexual orientation. A short commentary by Lung accompanies each story. The premise of the book is that individuals can choose and change their sexuality. It advocates gay people can and should become straight, but never advocates that they remain gay. [26]

Published essays

  • Amirthalingam, Kumaralingam, ‘Criminal Law and Private Spaces: Regulating Homosexual Acts in Singapore’ in Bernadette McSherry, Alan William Norrie and Simon Bronitt (eds.), Regulating Deviance: The Redirection of Criminalisation and the Futures of Criminal Law, Portland: Hart, 2009, 185-212.
  • Au, Alex. ‘Soft Exterior, Hard Core: Polices towards Gay’ in Bridget Welsh, James Chin, Arun Mahizhnan and Tan Tarn How (eds.), Impressions of the Goh Chok Tong Years in Singapore, Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies and NUS Press, 2009, 399-408.
  • Au, Alex. ‘Speaking of Bangkok: Thailand in the History of Gay Singapore’, in Peter A. Jackson (ed.), Queer Bangkok: 21st Century Markets, Media and Rights. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.
  • Chan, Kenneth, Cross-Dress for Success: Performing Ivan Heng and Chowee Leow’s “An Occasional Orchid” and Stella Kon’s “Emily of Emerald Hill” on the Singapore Stage, Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, Vol. 23, No. 1, Where in the World Is Transnational Feminism? (Spring, 2004), pp. 29-43.
  • Chan, Kenneth, Gay Sexuality in Singaporean Chinese Popular Culture, China Information, 22, 2008, 305-329
  • Chan, Phil, ‘Shared values of Singapore: sexual minority rights as Singaporean value’ The International Journal of Human Rights, Volume 13, Numbers 2-3, April 2009 , 279-305
  • Chua, Beng Huat. 2008. “Singapore in 2007: High Wage Ministers and the Management of Gays and Elderly”. Asian Survey 48 (1): 55-61.
  • Chua, Dominic, James Koh and Jack Yong. in Terence Chong (ed.) The AWARE Saga: Civil Society and Public Morality in Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press, 2011.
  • Chua, Lynette J. Kher Shing (2003). Saying No : Sections 377 and 377A of the Penal Code. Singapore Journal of Legal Studies: 209–261 .
  • Goh, Debbie, ‘It’s the Gays’ Fault: News and HIV as Weapons Against Homosexuality in Singapore’, Journal of Communication Inquiry 32:4 (2008), 383-399.
  • Heng, Geraldine., and Devan, Janadas. “State Fatherhood: The politics of Nationalism, Sexuality, and Race in Singapore.” Nationalism and Sexualities. Ed. Andrew Parker, Mary Russo, Doris Summer and Patricia Yaeger. United States of America: Routledge, 1992. 343-364.
  • Yvonee C. L. Lee, ‘”Don’t Ever Take A Fence Down Until You Know The Reason It Was Put Up – Singapore Communitarianism And The Case For Conserving 377A’ [2008] Singapore Journal of Legal Studies 347.
  • Laurence Wai Teng Leong[28], “Walking the Tightrope: The Role of Action For AIDS in the Provision of Social Service in Singapore”, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1995): 11-30.
  • Leong, Laurence Wai-Teng, ‘The ‘Straight’ Times: News media and sexual citizenship in Singapore’ in Angela Romano and Michael Bromley (eds.), Journalism and Democracy in Asia. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2005, 159-171.
  • Leong, Laurence, “Sexual Governance and the Politics of Sex in Singapore”, in Terence Chong (ed.)(2010) Management of Success: Singapore Revisited. (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies), pp. 579-593.
  • Leong, Laurence. The chapter entitled "Singapore" in "Sociolegal Control of Homosexuality- A Multi-Nation Comparison" (Edited by DJ West and R Green- Plenum Press, New York, 1997)- It examines sociological, historical, and philosophical trends in attitudes and laws relating to homosexuality in 20 countries, plus chapters on Islam and Europe.
  • Leong, Laurence, “Singapore”, in Chuck Stewart (ed.)(2010) The Greenwood Encylopedia of LGBT Issues Worldwide. (Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Press), (Vol. 1), pp. 475-487
  • Leong, Laurence, “Decoding Sexual Policy in Singapore”, in Lian Kwen Fee & Tong Chee Kiong (eds.)(2008) Social Policy in Post-Industrial Singapore. (Boston: Brill), pp. 279-308
  • Leong, Laurence, “Singapore”, in D.J. West & R. Green (eds.)(1997) Sociolegal Control of Homosexuality: A Multi-Nation Comparison. (New York: Plenum Publishing), pp. 127-144
  • Lim Eng Beng, The Mardi Gras Boys of Singapore’s English-Language Theatre, Asian Theatre Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2005, 293-309.
  • Lim Eng Beng, Glocalqueering in New Asia: The Politics of Performing Gay in Singapore, Theatre Journal 57 (2005) 383-405.
  • Lim Eng Beng, “Introduction: Queering Singapore,” Collected Plays Two: The Asian Boys Trilogy: Dreamplay, Landmarks, Happy Endings (Singapore: Ethos Books, Oct 2010)
  • Lim Eng Beng, “Glocalqueer Pink Activism,” Scales of Production: Public Activism and the Performing Arts in Local/Transcultural Performance Eds. Lynette Hunter, Peter Lichtenfels, John Rouse, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
  • Lim Kean Fan, ‘Where Love Dares (Not) Speak Its Name: The Expression of Homosexuality in Singapore’, Urban Studies August 2004 vol. 41 no. 9, 1759-1788.
  • Lo Mun-Hou, Review of People like Us: Sexual Minorities in Singapore; SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, Vol. 19, 2004
  • Lyons, L. T., 2004. Sexing the Nation: Normative Heterosexuality and the Construction of the ‘Good’ Singaporean, in A. Branach-Kallas & K. Wieckowska (eds.) The Nation of the Other: Constructions of Nation in Contemporary Cultural and Literary Discourses, Torun, Poland: Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika (Nicolas Copernicus University), pp. 79-96.
  • Maulod, Nur’Adlina and Nurhaizatul Jamila Jamil, ‘”Because Allah Says So”: Faithful Bodies, Female Masculinities, and the Malay Muslim Community of Singapore’, in Samar Habib (ed.), Islam and Homosexuality, Oxford: Praeger, 2010, 163-91.
  • Obendorf, Simon and Lek, Andrew (2004) Contentment or containment? Consumption and the lesbian and gay community in Singapore Theatre.
  • Offord, Baden. ‘Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia: Arrested Development! in Manon Tremblay, David Paternotte and Carol Johnson (eds.) The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State: Comparative Insights into a Tranformed Relationship. Surrey: Ashgate, 2011: 135-52.
  • Offord, Baden. 2003. ‘Singaporean queering of the internet: toward a new form of cultural transmission of rights discourse’, in C Berry, F Martin & A Yue (eds.), Mobile cultures : new media in queer Asia, Duke University Press, Durham, USA, pp. 133-157.
  • Offord, Baden. 2000. ‘Singapore’ in G.E. Haggerty (ed.), Gay Histories and Cultures : an Encyclopedia, Vol.2, New York: Garland.
  • Offord, Baden. 1999. ”The burden of (homo)sexual identity in Singapore’, Social Semiotics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 301 — 316.
  • Oswin, Natalie, Critical geographies and the uses of sexuality: Deconstructing queer space. Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 2008.
  • Oswin, Natalie, ‘The modern model family at home in Singapore: a queer geography’ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Volume 35, Number 2, April 2010 , pp. 256-268.
  • Tan, Chris. K. K. (2009), “But They are Like You and Me”: Gay Civil Servants and Citizenship in a Cosmopolitanizing Singapore. City & Society, 21: 133–154
  • Tan, Chris K. K.(2011), Go Home, Gay Boy! Or, Why Do Singaporean Gay Men Prefer to "Go Home" and Not "Come Out"? Journal of Homosexuality 58(6-7): 865-882.
  • Tan, Eugene. “God, Gays, and the Government: Managing Religious Intolerance and Irreligious Intolerance in Singapore” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010
  • Tan, Kenneth Paul, Sexing up Singapore, International Journal of Cultural Studies December 2003 vol. 6 no. 4 403-423
  • Tan, Kenneth Paul; Jin, Gary Lee Jack, ‘Imaging the Gay Community in Singapore’, Critical Asian Studies, Volume 39, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 179-204
  • Tan, Kenneth Paul, ‘Religious Reasons in a Secular Public Sphere: Debates in the Media about Homosexuality’ in Lai Ah Eng (ed.) Religious Diversity in Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies and the Institute of Policy Studies, 2008, 413-433.
  • Tan, SK, 1999, Singapore gays go to West Hollywood: on doing research on minority representation in Singapore.
  • Tsoi, W. F. ‘Developmental profile of 200 male and 100 female transsexuals in Singapore’, Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 19, Number 6, 595-605.
  • Tsoi, W. F. (1988), The prevalence of transsexualism in Singapore. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78: 501–504.
  • Winder, Roger, V. P. ‘”I am Gay”: Language and Identity in a Marginalized Community in Singapore’ Singapore: Department of English Language and Literature, National University of Singapore, 1994.
  • Yeoh, Paul, Writing Singapore Gay Identities: Queering the Nation in Johann S. Lee’s Peculiar Chris and Andrew Koh’s Glass Cathedral, The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 2006, 41, 121-135
  • Yue, Audrey, ‘Creative queer Singapore: The illiberal pragmatics of cultural production’, Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, 149-160, 2007
  • Yue, Audrey, “Hawking in the Creative City: Rice Rhapsody, Sexuality and the Cultural Politics of New Asia in Singapore.” Feminist Media Studies 7: 4 (2007)
  • Yue, Audrey, “Doing Cultural Citizenship in the Global Media Hub: Illiberal Pragmatics and Lesbian Consumption Practices in Singapore”. In Circuits of Visibility: Gender and Transnational Media Cultures, edited by R. Hegde. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

University theses

  • Chan, Kai Leng. 2002. “To Cherish and to Hold: the Making of Lesbian Families.” Academic Exercise, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore.
  • Chua, Charmaine. 2008. Lesbian Couples in Singapore. Academic Exercise, National University of Singapore.
  • Chia Fu Hai, Coming Out at Work: A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Gay Men Decision to be Out at Work, PhD Thesis, 2011.
  • Chia Mingde Mark, Constructing Al-Gayda’: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Antigay Rhetoric in Singapore, BA (Hons) Thesis, Department of Linguistics, National University of Singapore, 2009.
  • Devan, Pamela Mary. “Lesbian Performativity: Negotiating Visibility in Singapore.” Honours Thesis, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2008.
  • Devan, Pamela Mary. Butch, Femme and other labels in the Singaporean Lesbian Community: Can we escape the Heteronormative Gender Binary? Masters Thesis, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2010.
  • Lizada, Miguel Antonio Nograles. Gay Poets and the Urbanism of Manila and Singapore. Masters Thesis, Department of English Language and Literature, National University of Singapore, 2011.
  • Low, Wai Yee. 1994. “Making and Masking Lesbian Identities.” Academic Exercise, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore.
  • Ho, Anqi, Differences Between Heterosexual And Lesbian Women In Acceptability And Risk Perceptions Associated With Sexual Permissiveness, Masters Thesis, Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, 2009.
  • Ho, Chi Sam, Sexual Minorities in the Straits Times, BSocSC (Hons) Thesis, Department of Communications and New Media, National University of Singapore, 2008.
  • Hou, Erich, Gay and Straight, Stray Or Great? Universal Human Rights and Singapore Penal Code 377A, PhD Thesis, University of Cardiff, 2011.
  • Kang, Yew Fai Isaac. Singapore’s Sexual Exiles. Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2001.
  • Ng, King Kang, Changing Politics of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Singapore, Deakin University, Australia, PhD, 2006.
  • Norhazlina bte Md Yusof, Same Sex Sexuality and Islam in Singapore, Masters Thesis, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2005.
  • Pang Kent Kent, Friendship among Young Heterosexual/Homosexual Chinese Singaporeans, BA (Hons) Thesis, Department of Sociology, Nanyang Technological University, 2011.
  • Rahman, Kartini Abdul . The Lesbian Community in Singapore. Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2001.
  • Rajeswari, Indulekshmi, Same Difference: The Role of Conflicts of Law in the Recognition of Same-sex Marriages Performed Overseas and Related Benefits in Singapore. Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, LLB (Undergraduate Research Opportunity Project), 2011.
  • Sim, Wei Chun, Joshua, Mega Churches and Homosexuality, BSocSc (Hons) Thesis, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2010.
  • Tan, Loretta Sheun Fuen, Contra-indication: Corporeality, Iconicity and Representation in Singapore Lesbian Theatre. PhD Thesis, Department of Theatre Studies, National University of Singapore, 2009.
  • Tay, Joanne, A Queer Reading of Roystan Tan’s 881, Or The Alternative Family and Homosocial Bodies. BA (Hons) Thesis, Department of English, Nanyang Technological University, 2009.
  • Toh, Joseph, Muslim by Birth, Malay by Society, Gay by Choice. Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2002.
  • Wu, Wei Chiang, Samuel, ‘Sounding ‘gay’: Prosodic patterns in gay speech in Singapore. Masters Thesis, Department of Linguistics, National University of Singapore, 2005.
  • Zhang, Huiling Helaine, ‘Rock the House: Nationalism and Queer Sexualities in Singapore Cinema. BA (Hons) Thesis, Department of English, Nanyang Technological University, 2009.

Newspaper features

  • Khoo, Betty L., ‘The Outsiders: New Nation looks at lesbianism in Singapore’, New Nation, October 16-20, 1972.
  • Thio, Su Mein, ‘Understanding the Homosexual Agenda’, The Christian Post, September 23, 2008.
  • Zubillaga-Pow, Jun, ‘The Irony of Censorship’, Fridae, August 25, 2010.

LGBT writing on the Internet

External links

A bibliography of academic works on Singapore LGBT topics compiled by Jun Zubillaga-Pow on the IndigNation website:[36]

Acknowledgements

This article was started by Roy Tan with much additional information contributed by Aaron Ho and other Wikipedia contributors.