Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered in greenery. More land is being reclaimed for future development. Singapore is also known as Pulau Ujong, but the term is rarely used.
Singapore had been a part of various local empires (most notable is the British Empire) since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826.
Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 after a merger referendum was held in 1962. and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia.
Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transhipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$71,054, making Singapore the 3rd wealthiest countries in the world.
Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The People's Action Party (PAP) has won every election since the British grant of internal self-government in 1959. The legal system of Singapore has its foundations in the English common law system, but modifications have been made to it over the years, such as the removal of trial by jury. The PAP's popular image is that of a strong, experienced and highly qualified government, backed by a skilled Civil Service and an education system with an emphasis on achievement and meritocracy; but it is perceived by some voters, opposition critics and international observers as being authoritarian and too restrictive on individual freedom.
Some 5.612 million people live in the country, of whom 3.439 million were born locally. Most are of Chinese, Malay or Indian descents. There are four official languages: English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. Singapore is also one of the five founding members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) which was established on 8 August 1967, Singapore also hosts the APEC Secretariat, and is a member of the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth, and the United Nations (UN).
The following table consists of the appointments of Cabinet Ministers as of 15th May 2021.
|President||Halimah Yacob||14th September 2017|
|Prime Minister||Lee Hsien Loong||12th August 2004|
|Deputy Prime Minister||Heng Swee Keat||1st May 2019|
|Senior Minister||Teo Chee Hean||1st May 2019|
|Speaker of Parliament||Tan Chuan Jin||11th September 2017|
|Deputy Speaker of Parliament||Lim Biow Chuan||25th January 2016|
|Minister in the Prime Minister's Office||Maliki Osman||27th July 2020|
|Indranee Rajah||1st May 2018|
|Minister for Communications & Information||Josephine Teo||15th May 2021|
|Minister for Culture, Community & Youth||Edwin Tong||27th July 2020|
|Minister for Defence||Ng Eng Hen||21st May 2011|
|Minister for Education||Chan Chun Sing||15th May 2021|
|27th July 2020|
|Minister for Finance||Lawrence Wong||15th May 2021|
|1st May 2018|
|Minister for Foreign Affairs||Vivian Balakrishnan||1st October 2015|
|27th July 2020|
|Minister for Health||Ong Ye Kung||15th May 2021|
|27th July 2020|
|Minister for Home Affairs||K. Shanmugam||1st October 2015|
|11th September 2017|
|Minister for Law||K. Shanmugam||1st May 2008|
|27st July 2020|
|Minister for Manpower||Tan See Leng||15th May 2021|
|Minister for National Development||Desmond Lee||27th July 2020|
|Minister for Social & Family Development||Masagos Zulkifli||27th July 2020|
|Minister for Sustainability and the Environment||Grace Fu||27th July 2020|
|Minister for Trade & Industry||Gan Kim Yong||15th May 2021|
|Tan See Leng
|27th July 2020|
|Minister for Transport||S. Iswaran||15th May 2021|
|Minister-in-charge of Muslims Affairs||Masagos Zulkifli||1st May 2018|
|Minister-in-charge of Trade Relations||S. Iswaran||1st May 2018|
- Cocos Island: Sovereignty transferred to Australia on 23 November 1955.
- Christmas Island: Sovereignty transferred to Australia on 1 October 1958.